Author Archives: julia

Mindfulness & the Alexander Technique

This Saturday I’m giving a conference presentation, to discuss how learning the Alexander Technique can help people with hypermobility – I’ll come back to this topic next time. The talk that will precede my one is about mindfulness. So, why did I decide to call my presentation Embodying mindfulness through the Alexander Technique?

Mind full or mindful

Many of you will be familiar with this cartoon of having your mind full rather than being mindful – it’s all too easy to get too caught up in our busy lives, impacting our health and wellbeing. Practices such as mindfulness can help us be more present, and so can the Alexander Technique.

So how do they differ? I’ve made an attempt to portray how this cartoon might look if we consider it from the perspective of the Alexander Technique:

Alexander Technique mindfulness

Through learning the Alexander Technique we gradually become more present but as a whole mind-body self – we’re very much part of the picture, not just looking out (or inwards) from the mind – you could describe it as embodying mindfulness.

So the Alexander Technique is not a meditation practice, or indeed any kind of practice or exercise that you perhaps do for a certain amount of time each day or week, but rather it’s a way of thinking and being that is with you all the time as you go about your daily life.

FM Alexander was around long before our culture took up mindfulness with such enthusiasm. In his time, Alexander was described as Zen for the Western world. For him the mind/body is indivisible – whatever you are thinking now will be playing out physically in some way and vice versa. So he was a bit ahead of his time. At least the wider world now acknowledges that the mind and body are linked – but a linkage still implies two separate entities!

The Alexander Technique is a method for self-care and for change. It enables us to have more choice over how we respond to what life throws at us. Alexander teachers use hands on and spoken guidance to enable people to learn on both experiential and cognitive levels – they will be shown how they can quieten their over-active mind-body and improve their general standard of functioning – their breathing, postural support, balance and movement. In so doing, they generally discover a different and more confident sense of themselves.

The Alexander Technique and mindfulness are complementary, and both help people feel calmer and more in control. I would argue that learning the Alexander Technique has a greater potential to transform people’s lives because it works at such a fundamental level – how we react, how we move, how we breathe. But it is not a quick fix and it is not as accessible as some mindfulness interventions – you can’t just download an app. Learning the core Alexander skills and gaining sufficient understanding to apply it in your own life usually requires some one-to-one lessons. Not everyone has the time, money, or inclination for that but for those who are able to make that personal investment, it’s unlikely they will be disappointed.

When things go wrong

I had a lot of anger to deal with on Friday. On the phone to a well-known life-insurance company, I was shocked to find out that my mum had been misled about her policy. In her lifetime, my mum had done her best to make sure she was leaving all her affairs in order, and she had been assured that a scheme she’d paid a lot of money into would cover her funeral expenses. I discovered on the call that this was not the case. Despite my mounting anger, I was able to ensure I got the information I needed, to calmly but firmly make my case, and to take the matter further.

When people begin Alexander lessons, they don’t usually anticipate the all-encompassing nature of the technique. They often come for a specific reason – perhaps back pain, or stress, or for posture-related problems – and they’re pleasantly surprised to discover additional benefits in seemingly unrelated areas of life.

Understanding the fundamental nature of the Alexander Technique takes time. At the beginning one might assume that the core skill of learning to ‘not just immediately react’ might entail a suppression of emotions. With time it becomes clear that this is not in any way true – rather, we discover how we can best express our real feelings.

As I was listening to the person telling me why the policy would provide no money to pay for mum’s funeral, I was also noticing my (mounting) reaction. I was feeling a tightening in my chest, my brow became even more furrowed than usual, and my attention was narrowing in. I was beginning to hunch over my desk, gripping the phone hard. Oh, and I was holding my breath. So, as the conversation proceeded, I simply and repeatedly reminded myself of the support coming up through my sitting bones, and of the space around me. As I did this, I gradually became more aware of the room around me, and began to breathe more freely. Rather than spitting out the first words that came to me, I took a few seconds to regain my calm. In those moments, the right words came and in a tone that required to be taken seriously.

I’m still angry at the situation – even just writing this now, I can feel my jaw momentarily tighten. But I’m not turning the same thoughts over and over. That is what I would have done before and it would have harmed no-one but myself. But that doesn’t mean that I’m going to let the matter drop. I accept the real feelings of anger and frustration, and in accepting them they begin to lose their power.

Learning from my little finger

This post is taking a little longer to write than usual as my touch typing is somewhat hampered, having broken my little finger 2 weeks ago. Learning the Alexander Technique leads to many benefits, including greater self-awareness and better balance. So what’s an Alexander teacher doing breaking her finger? And, why am I quite so grateful to the Alexander Technique at this moment?

x-ray of my broken finger
My broken little finger after my fall

I was out walking by the sea with a friend, when I ended up having to climb down a sea defence barrier to get nearer to my dog who had wandered ahead out of earshot. I’ve happily clambered up or down these massive boulders several times before – I’m no climber but I do love scrabbling around. Knowing that everything was very wet from recent rain, I was actually looking forward to the mini challenge of navigating myself safely down. However, halfway through, I allowed myself to be momentarily distracted when my friend called out to me – ironically to ask how was I going to manage the bottom section which was covered in seaweed? As I looked up to answer I wasn’t paying attention to the step I was then taking and I soon realised that my foot was rapidly sliding underneath me.  

Probably everyone has had the experience of time appearing to slow down as an accident unfolds. What the Alexander Technique offers in such a situation is the ability to avoid simply going into panic or freeze mode but instead to give yourself time to figure out how best to respond in the moment. So when I first realised that I was slipping, I knew how I could allow myself to descend fairly smoothly and safely. However, as I was coming gently into contact with the rock underneath me, I realised that now my whole body was sliding on the slippery rocks and I was heading towards a large gap between the boulders. Falling down there could easily result in my head banging against the rock walls, so I threw my arm out to stop myself. No harm done except for my little finger which immediately began to throb insistently. Assuming it was just a sprain and stupidly feeling rather embarrassed, I didn’t tell my friend that I’d hurt myself. Later on though, my partner made me go to the minor injuries unit and I was shocked to see the x-ray of my finger with a very obvious fracture. 

My finger is recovering really well and I’ve been musing on how different everything would have been without the Alexander Technique. Of course I can’t know for sure, but I think it’s very likely I would have ended up with a worse injury. I certainly would have felt a real flash of fear while falling and tightened every muscle in my body – a reaction which is more likely to lead to injury (we’ve all heard about someone who has fallen over when drunk without hurting themselves because they were so relaxed). But perhaps more interesting than this is my attitude after the event, which has been very different to my pre-Alexander days. In fact, the reason I first began Alexander lessons all those years ago was fear about my future long-term health because of a family history of back and neck problems. All my life I’d perceived myself as primarily a thinking mind, with very little awareness of my body, which almost seemed ‘other’ to me. In those days if I’d broken a finger I would have spent my time worrying about whether it would heal properly and whether I’d end up with osteoarthritis in the long term. It wouldn’t have occurred to me that I had any real role to play in my own recovery. Now I have a better understanding of myself and more confidence in the natural healing process. What’s more, I know how to use my Alexander thinking to help this process along. On a practical level, I have a good sense of what activities will be ok for me to do, rather than my previous attitude of just being scared that I might make the injury worse by inadvertently doing something I shouldn’t. So, through my Alexander training, I’ve gone from a position of fear to one of self-confidence.

Training in the Alexander Technique certainly doesn’t make you invincible but it does give you the means to take better care of yourself. I’m sure that, compared with how one was before, the overall risk of injury must be reduced when one is more self-aware, more present and more in balance, more of the time. This will be true across many areas – whether it’s falling, doing DIY, or just ‘overdoing it’ during exercise.

So, through the Alexander Technique I’ve gained confidence in being better able to avoid an accident from happening, in responding appropriately in the event that it does, and in recovering from it afterwards. Of course one doesn’t want to be over-confident – after all, they do say that pride comes before a fall!

Why hands-on in Alexander teaching?

Alexander Technique hands-on teaching The Alexander Technique is essentially a self-help method for positive change that involves discovering how to think differently. So why do Alexander teachers use hands-on work to help people learn the technique?

Touch can provide a subtle yet powerful means of communication. Hands-on Alexander work uses a gentle, reassuring, instructive, non-judgemental and unique quality of touch that requires at least 3 years of training to acquire – and which then continues to be refined over a lifetime of teaching. Here are the main reasons why we use hands-on work (not mutually exclusive):

  • Helping people become calmer, more present and more alert. When the whole mind-body self quietens, the best conditions possible are created for positive change and learning
  • Aiding the development of greater self-awareness
  • Providing abundant opportunities to help people develop and practice core Alexander skills, such as giving oneself time to make conscious choices over whether and how to respond to any given stimulus (rather than just reacting automatically)
  • Enabling people to discover a clearer sense of embodiment – the sense of self as a whole, rather than as a mind linked with a body
  • Helping people to develop greater integration, coordination and stability within themselves
  • Encouraging the development of better postural support and balance
  • Guiding movement to enable people to have an experience of more fluidity and less effort than they would otherwise have been able to achieve
  • Helping people become aware of habitual tension patterns, and to let go of excessive muscle tension
  • Enabling people to better manage and reduce pain
  • Assessing what is happening within people, to provide feedback and to guide and tailor the teaching to the individual.

Hands-on Alexander work can bring about a profound sense of well-being. When someone leaves an Alexander lesson they generally feel more relaxed, yet alert, and more in control – strong motivators to continue to apply the technique in their daily life.

The majority of Alexander teachers combine their hands-on work with spoken guidance and dialogue. This synergistic combination creates the optimal learning environment for most people, equally engaging both experiential and cognitive learning.

If the spoken guidance element of teaching is lacking, it’s much harder to enable people to think differently and to ‘gain all the tools’ needed. Outside of the lesson, people are then less equipped to be able to work out for themselves how to apply and develop the Alexander Technique for themselves. As a result they may remain more dependent on the teacher than they need be.

At the other end of the spectrum, a small number of Alexander teachers claim that it is possible to predominantly, or even solely, teach without the use of hands-on work. This is sometimes now taking the form of online teaching. Perhaps remote teaching can provide useful supplementary support for people who already have a reasonable amount of Alexander experience. However, and particularly for those beginning lessons, the teacher’s guiding touch provides an invaluable help in developing the core skills, such as the ability to not just react unthinkingly but to pause to choose whether and how to respond to a stimulus. So, not using any hands-on work makes learning harder but it will also leave people short-changed of the full potential of the Alexander Technique to transform their lives. An article by Alexander teacher Joe Armstrong, eloquently discusses the importance of hands-on work in enabling the longer-term and life-transformative changes that can occur as a result of Alexander lessons.

Another important consideration is that, to date, all of the Alexander teaching in clinical research trials has consisted of hands-on combined with spoken guidance. This research provides good evidence that one-to-one Alexander lessons using hands-on work together with spoken instruction are effective in reducing pain and disability for people with chronic pain (back or neck), as well as enabling people with Parkinson’s to manage the associated disability. In contrast, there is currently no research evidence that either hands-on work alone, or spoken guidance alone are effective. It is also worth remembering that when FM Alexander began teaching his technique to others, he started out using just spoken guidance. But he then brought in hands-on work because he discovered that words alone were rarely enough to convey his meaning. This nicely reflects the practical and experiential nature of the Alexander Technique.

So I would argue that combining hands-on and spoken guidance together is essential if we want the teaching process to be as effective as it can be. In this way, people will be equipped with the necessary skills and understanding to be able to apply the Alexander Technique for themselves, as well as to continue to learn and develop it for the long term.

Thinking differently about thinking

You might have heard it said that the Alexander Technique is ‘all about thinking’ but for many people this can come as something of a surprise when they first begin Alexander lessons. What’s more, they often find it hard to imagine that, outside of lessons, they could possibly be able to think about it very much at all – life is just too busy!

Thinking

But what do we mean here by ‘thinking’? The English language uses this one word as an umbrella term that encompasses a whole range of different types of conscious process. Here are some of the many ways in which we can think: we can analyse, calculate, evaluate, criticise, conclude, decide, anticipate and recollect. We also imagine, visualise, believe, create, and day-dream. Then again, we can observe, contemplate, appreciate, intend, choose and wish. I would say that the nature of Alexander thinking shares most in common with this last set of terms and least in common with the first.

Applying the Alexander Technique involves two distinctive ways of thinking that FM Alexander called ‘inhibition’ and ‘direction’. Practising inhibition involves developing greater conscious awareness of ourselves, such that we are more able to choose whether and how to respond in any given moment (rather than the default mode of reacting instantly and habitually). Over time this practice leads to a general quietening down of our whole self, so that our minds race less and our muscles tense less and we’re less likely to over-react to what life throws at us in the moment.

For me, ‘direction’ is thinking spatially from an embodied perspective. This means that, whatever I’m doing, my mind-body lies at the centre of my awareness, and this is organised around my head and spine as its axis. Like inhibition, the character of direction is expansive – a light brush stroke of attention that sweeps around, not an intense focus. For example, when I’m standing, I’m directing if I simply think of where the crown of my head is in relation to the ceiling and in which direction my weight is going. Such thinking will indirectly and beneficially impact on my posture (in this moment) in a way that simply thinking ‘I’ll try and stand up straight’ never could. So, inhibition and direction are not our usual ‘doing thinking’ but more a ‘state of being’ thinking.

Through the Alexander Technique we learn to think in a more embodied way and to develop and refine our natural skills of awareness, so that we can take in our environment and ourselves simultaneously. This ‘expansive awareness’ (external and internal at the same time) is a natural attribute (animals and young children have it) but it’s a skill that we increasingly lose as we grow up – largely because we’re constantly encouraged to pay very focused attention to the task in hand. For most people, most of the time, attention switches between external and internal; and the internal attention switches between feelings/sensations and thinking. The Alexander perspective is different, so for example, while I’m looking at the computer screen writing this post, I am also seeing the room around the screen (obviously not in focus), hearing the sounds outside, and I have a sense of my sitting bones in contact with the chair and the movement of my fingers over the keyboard as I choose what words to write next.

My experience, as well as that of my colleagues, is that Alexander training, and practising inhibition and direction in daily life, lead over time to an overall shift in our way of thinking. In general, we become less judgemental, not so self-critical, not as anxious, and less likely to fixate narrowly on our goals. Instead we become calmer, more optimistic (yet more realistic), more accepting and compassionate, and more open-minded, experimental, playful and quietly confident.

For many of us, it can often feel like we’re subject to a near-constant stream of random mental chatter, full of ‘what if…’ and ‘I should….’ thinking, as well as self-criticism and such-like. Engaging with Alexander thinking replaces some of this chatter in a very simple and effective way – better directing our mental energy, and with resultant benefits such as less tension and a calmer state of mind.

The difference a small thought can make

During an introductory Alexander Technique lesson this week, there came a point when my new client looked slightly puzzled and it felt like I could almost read her thoughts: ‘This is really strange, my back isn’t hurting now but I don’t understand what’s made the difference. OK it does all sound logical…..but are you seriously suggesting that just thinking a bit differently in my daily life can help me overcome the back pain I’ve had for years? And in even if it could, how on earth can I remember to do this ‘Alexander thinking’ all the time?’

Of course, I don’t really know what she was thinking but I certainly recognise how hard it is to make such a mind shift. After all, mostly in life we’re led to think we need to do something, and to make big changes if we want to get anywhere. So, faced with aches and pains we either just grit our teeth and get on with life, or we might perhaps sign up for an exercise class. To suggest that we don’t need to do different stuff, just do what we do differently, does take a bit of getting used to.

From an Alexander perspective, it’s the way that we do things that is important. The tendency is to run on automatic pilot, not being particularly aware of how we’ve just picked up that bag, or how we bent over to wash our hands etc. And there’s no problem with that if we’re able to carry out our daily activities with the same beautiful movement coordination and balance that almost everyone is born with. Unfortunately, we’ve had to adapt ourselves to this complex world of cars, chairs, computers etc – a world rather different to the one we evolved for. In adapting, we’ve developed ways of moving, sitting, standing that aren’t ‘natural’ just habitual.

So if we’re stuck in habit-mode, how do we get out of it? One way is through the experience of discovering how to do things differently – which is what you get in an Alexander lesson. And what you also get is guidance on how to put this into practice for yourself. How to ‘stop and think’ so that you can prevent your usual, unthinking reaction and instead make a conscious choice of how you would like to proceed.

Like learning to drive a car or ride a bike. At first it’s seemingly impossible on your own and you need the regular help of an Alexander teacher. Gradually, through your lessons, you build the skills and understanding and eventually it becomes second nature to think, move and be in a way that ultimately just makes life easier.  

Enjoying the simple things in life

One of the many things that I really appreciate about the Alexander Technique is that it enables me to turn the mundane into the pleasurable – or at the very least, into something better than it would otherwise have been.

Woman squatting to load washing machine
Finding balance in squatting to load the washing machine

Whether I’m standing at the bus stop, doing the ironing, or waiting in a queue, these days I am rarely irritated and never bored. This is in stark contrast to my former self, before I began lessons in the Alexander Technique and later went on to train to be an Alexander teacher. I was always in a terrible rush, wanting to be somewhere I wasn’t yet. While sitting at traffic lights, I had an overwhelming urge to be getting going to reach my destination and this fed into a sense of mounting tension. At the checkout queue I often felt impatient whenever the person in front seemed to take ages to pack and pay. And with a demanding job that seemed to suck up nearly all of my time and energy, I resented every moment when I was ‘having to’ put out the bins or do the washing up. I just felt that this was all ‘wasted time’, when I could be doing more interesting or important things.

I’ve now been teaching the Alexander Technique for many years, sharing this wonderful secret of finding more contentment as we go about our daily lives. Through learning how to think, move and ‘be’ differently, we gradually become more present and aware. Like me, you need never be bored again, there’s a whole world of awareness, balance and simple movement to playfully explore.

Through the Alexander Technique I have found a profoundly greater peace of mind/body. It’s true that old habits die hard and I do still have a tendency to be thinking ahead, living in the future. But now I always have the capacity to bring myself back to the present, my embodied self, and to a greater sense of calm and happiness.

How does the Alexander Technique work?

Research paper movement anticipation affects posture

New research has shone light onto a possible cause of some of our unhelpful postural and movement habits. Dr Rajal Cohen and her team found that simply the anticipation of making a movement caused people to put their head out of alignment with the rest of their body [1]. The research illustrates a common tendency to over-focus on the desired end result (in this instance walking towards something in order to put an object down), without sufficient awareness or interest in what we might be doing to ourselves in the process of achieving our goal. This undesirable tendency (‘end-gaining’) is something we can learn to recognise and diminish through Alexander Technique lessons.

The Alexander Technique was developed during many months and years of dedicated and careful experimentation. It was the solution to a very personal, career-threatening problem – the loss of FM Alexander’s voice. The practical, thoughtful method that Alexander discovered, allowed him to overcome the persistent hoarseness that had plagued his life as a theatre actor.

Today people take Alexander lessons for a wide range of reasons covering areas as diverse as health, sports, music and business. Because of its fundamental nature – encompassing how we react, think, move and even breathe – the Alexander Technique can be applied in any activity, allowing greater choice, freedom and ease in everyday life.

Clinical trials have demonstrated that one-to-one Alexander lessons with STAT-registered teachers can lead to long-term reduction in persistent back and neck pain, as well as enabling people with Parkinson’s to minimise the effects of their condition on their daily lives. The Alexander Technique has been taught for many years in music and drama colleges, enabling students to improve their performance, and avoid anxiety and injury. It is now being taught in some schools to help children to ‘learn how to learn’, and Alexander lessons are also increasingly being taken up in business and in sports.

So how can one approach be applied across such diverse fields? How does the Alexander Technique actually work? FM Alexander first developed the method (the practice) and later sought to understand and explain the theory behind it. He was clearly ahead of his time, being one of the first in the Western world to recognise that mind and body are inseparable – this concept is beginning to be more widely accepted in our stubbornly dualistic world, but mostly we don’t get beyond simply acknowledging that there is some kind of link between mind and body. Alexander also recognised that the way we do everything that we do in life (our ‘use’) profoundly affects our long-term functioning – something that biomechanist, Katy Bowman eloquently writes about today. And Alexander’s method relies on our potential for fundamental change – and this potential has been borne out in more recent decades by neuroscience’s recognition of brain plasticity. Research by Tim Cacciatore and colleagues has demonstrated that training in the Alexander Technique leads to improved postural and overall muscle tone, movement coordination, flexibility and balance.

The latest research by Dr Cohen’s team is very welcome as it clearly supports Alexander’s belief that mind and body are indeed inseparable. The study found that just the thought of moving caused an anticipatory negative effect on posture. Furthermore this effect was more pronounced in those participants who were found to be least able to consciously prevent themselves from reacting to a test stimulus; and it was also worse in those who generally tended to be less ‘present’ (mindful).

Learning the Alexander Technique involves developing greater self-awareness and more conscious choice over how we respond in any situation. This skill of conscious (intentional) inhibition enables us to prevent unwanted habits, and thereby to access our inherent movement coordination, balance and posture that would otherwise tend to be hampered by such habits. Alexander work helps us remain more present and embodied. It enables us to avoid the tendency described in Dr Cohen’s research of continually ‘jumping ahead of ourselves and living in the future’.

Reference

1. Baer JL, Vasavada A, Cohen RG. Neck posture is influenced by anticipation of stepping. Human Movement Science 2019;64:108–122.

With the best of intention

Dart hitting the bullseyeSo what is the Alexander Technique all about? I sometimes like to describe it as awareness, intention and balance. In previous posts I described how learning and applying the technique enables us to develop greater self-awareness and come into a better state of balance (physical & mental). Today I’m considering the key role of intention.
It’s about being clear what you want and what you don’t want. So for example, I may want to get that pot of jam from the high kitchen shelf but I’m also clear that I’d rather not pull myself off balance, and so have to over-tense all my muscles, as I reach up for it.
One of the key skills we learn in Alexander lessons is to prioritise ‘looking after ourselves’ over and above the urge to simply attain the goal. The goal in question could be as mundane as getting a pot of jam, or as significant as deciding what career to embark on next. ‘Looking after ourselves’ encompasses a desire not to rush to just grab at the goal – this is an ingrained habit for the vast majority of us (in industrialised countries at least). Amongst other things it involves unnecessarily compressing the spine and joints as we physically or metaphorically reach out to grasp what we want. Through the experience gained in Alexander lessons, we become aware of this tendency. We begin to notice how we’re constantly and unintentionally mucking ourselves up by narrowing in our attention on the desired goal – interfering with the natural rhythm of our breathing, muscular tone and balance, as well as the clarity of our thinking. We gradually learn to pay more attention to how we carry out our daily activities, rather than just focussing unthinkingly on the goal of each activity itself.
This is one of the basic principles of the Alexander Technique, namely to prioritise the means of attaining a goal, rather than fixating on the goal itself. Occasionally this principle is misunderstood to imply that we shouldn’t have goals, or that our goals are unimportant. Having clear goals is, of course, essential; it’s simply a question of how we achieve them and, if we’re not careful, at what cost. Paradoxically, by learning to confer greater importance on looking after ourselves than on just trying to achieve the immediate goal, we will be more effective and are more likely to succeed than if we only focus on the desired end result.
Considering a simple example such as throwing a dart makes this last point clear. If all your attention is focused on achieving the highest score, you’re likely to be less mindful of how you prepare for the action and how you then throw the dart. Furthermore, it’s very difficult to stay present if your mind is on the score you want to get (in the future), or on what happened in your last experience of throwing a dart (in the past). In contrast, providing you are clear what your overall target/intention is, you can then allow yourself to stay sufficiently present to stop holding your breath, stop scrunching yourself up so much, and bring yourself into balance – and that’s not a bad starting point for any activity. The rest can then take care of itself. We’ve all heard of athletes doing incredible feats when they’re ‘in the zone’, and the same principle applies to how well-coordinated we are when we throw a dart or just walk down the road.
Another source of potential misunderstanding is thinking that this Alexander focus on the how, i.e the process, means that we need to try and work out exactly how to carry out the action in question. Consider any action – let’s take the example of throwing a dart again – and bear in mind that we have more than 600 muscles in our body. It’s immediately obvious that we cannot consciously work out exactly which parts of us need to be doing what at any given moment. The bio-mechanics required for almost any action are way beyond the ability of our conscious mind to determine. And yet in the mainstream, we’re bombarded by endless streams of advice on ‘the required grip for the dart’, the ‘desired position of your head’ in golf, what to do with your so-called ‘core muscles’ in Pilates etc. Unfortunately, when we try to work out at this level of detail what actually needs to happen, we’ll simply end up trying to micro-manage ourselves. This internal focus of attention leads to excessive muscular tension as we fruitlessly dictate what different ‘parts’ of ourselves need to do.
The point is that we already know how to coordinate ourselves well to carry out an immense range of intricate movements and actions. It’s the way we moved when we were 2–3 year-olds. But we ‘know it’ with our subconscious minds and bodies, and this knowledge has become buried under many years of habit. Putting into practice the Alexander Technique involves being clear in our intention, and using self-awareness to help ourselves prevent the habits that would otherwise interfere. Reducing the habitual interferences allows our inherent ‘blueprint’ or ‘template’ of coordination and balance to begin to re-emerge with its characteristic poise, ease and freedom of movement.
So, the Alexander Technique helps us be clear what our overall intention is, to create the best conditions we can in ourselves, and to make sure we’re getting all the information we need to be able to achieve the goal (keeping the eye on the ball etc). This approach is backed up by sports science research which has demonstrated that an external focus of attention for the action is required for best results [Wulf, 2007]. Applying the Alexander Technique does encompass an internal focus of attention as well, but this is aimed at reducing what we don’t want i.e. not interfering by letting our usual habits creep in. Crucially, we aspire to developing an expansive awareness that encompasses both the external (the surrounding environment) and the internal (our mind/body) into one integrated whole.
In the examples above I’ve used activities that might commonly be described as largely ‘physical’ (reaching for a pot, or throwing a dart) but exactly the same principles apply for anything, whether a physical action, a train of thought, or a life goal. Whatever the aim, we need to be clear what is our overall intention and not just to fixate on an immediate outcome. As an analogy, if you’re sailing across a lake to get to a point on the other side, you won’t get far if you simply strive hard to go directly to that point. Instead, as long as you know the overall destination you’re heading for, if you pay attention to the general conditions of wind and weather, you’ll be able to navigate the best route with all its twists and turns, and get to where you want to go.
Summing up, we’d like a clear intention of what we want, a friendly monitoring of our ingrained tendency to muck ourselves up, and a resolute decision to not just slip into habit but stick with our intention and then to allow it all to happen.

Reference
Wulf G. Attention and motor skill learning. Human Kinetics, USA 2007.

When less is most definitely more

Skeleton brushing teethDo you get mouth ulcers? Apparently, 2–10% of the population suffer from frequent mouth ulcers with no obvious cause [1]. If you often have mouth ulcers, you may well have tried treating them with different gels or creams. If that’s the case, have you ever considered if there might be a different way of addressing the problem? Whether there might be something that you could stop doing, something to take away, rather than the usual approach of adding a treatment, or working out what you need to do?

Of course, there are many different reasons for getting mouth ulcers [2] but it now seems that one factor could be toothpaste, or rather the sodium lauryl sulphate that is an ingredient of most toothpastes. Using such toothpastes might be causing mouth ulcers in some people and/or making their ulcers last longer and be more painful [3–5]. So if you frequently have mouth ulcers it might be worth finding out if they improve if you stop putting sodium lauryl sulphate in your mouth (several brands of toothpaste are available that don’t contain this ingredient).

What a lovely commonsense solution – to stop doing the thing that might be causing or exacerbating the problem. A logical solution yes, but it does fly in the face of our usual approach. Because, in general, we try to work out what we need to do to try and solve a problem, rather than asking what we could stop doing. Wouldn’t it be great if we could use this approach of simply taking something away to tackle other problems in life?

Well the good news is that just stopping what we usually do can be a highly effective approach for a great many of the issues we face. Whenever the problem is caused by, or aggravated by, the way in which we do things – and we do most things in an habitual fashion – then reducing or stopping that habit is likely to be beneficial. This is the basis of the Alexander Technique, asking the question, what might I be doing now that could be causing or contributing to this problem? And then using the technique to prevent or reduce the habit.

One example is back pain. For the majority of people with back pain there is no underlying medical condition, so a visit to the GP is usually followed by a diagnosis of ‘simple’ or ‘non-specific back pain’. The GP’s diagnostic process is essential in order to be able to rule out any more serious underlying medical issues. But when there is no obvious medical cause, doctors can struggle to identify the root cause of the problem. However, the good news is that GPs and other healthcare professionals are increasingly realising the pivotal impact of the way in which we lead our lives on our overall health (and not just in the obvious examples of diet and ‘lifestyle’).

US biomechanist, Katy Bowman [6] has comprehensively researched and written about the huge impact on our long-term state of health and functioning, of the way in which we move about while carrying out our everyday activities. It’s something that FM Alexander worked out more than a hundred years ago when he developed his technique in order to resolve his voice problems. It’s only more recently, however, that insights from research in biomechanics, neuroscience and clinical trials validate what Alexander discovered for himself over many years of experimentation and observation.

Back pain is the most common reason that people begin Alexander lessons [7]. And what do people learn in these lessons? They learn how to become more aware of their habitual ways of standing/sitting/walking/carrying/texting etc, and how these ways of doing things tend to put unnecessary strain on their back and joints. Through gaining an experience of doing things differently in a lesson, they discover how they can reduce or stop these habitual interferences with their natural movement coordination and balance.

Of course we didn’t start out in life with these habits but we developed them as (usually) subconscious strategies in adapting ourselves to our environments and largely sedentary lifestyles. Watch most 2–3 year-old children and you’ll see fluid, effortless movement and easy balance. That’s because nearly everyone is born with the potential for good movement coordination, balance and postural support. However, this inherent capacity becomes ‘buried’ under accumulated years of habitual responses. If we can learn how to prevent or reduce the habits that are getting in the way, we’ll tend to regain some of that natural poise and ease of movement. So if our back pain is caused by, or aggravated by, an overall tendency to contract in any movement or in just sitting or standing, then as we gradually reduce the strain on our spine, muscles and other tissues, our back problem has more of a chance to resolve itself.

Two large randomised controlled trials have demonstrated that one-to-one Alexander Technique lessons from STAT-registered teachers are effective, long-term solutions for the pain and disability associated with persistent back or neck pain [8,9].

So the next time you are faced with a problem, just take a moment to consider whether ‘just doing something’ is really the most effective approach. Or whether it’s time to find yourself an Alexander teacher to discover the truly groundbreaking and challenging skill of not just reacting like we usually do!

 

  1. Altenburg A, et al. The treatment of chronic recurrent oral aphthous ulcers. Deutsches Arzteblatt International 2014;111:665–73. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2014.0665.
  2. NICE recommends that if you keep getting mouth ulcers, do mention it next time you see your GP, and to be aware that you should see your doctor without delay if you ever have a single ulcer that lasts for more than 3 weeks (just in case it’s malignant) https://cks.nice.org.uk/aphthous-ulcer#!topicsummary.
  3. Herlofson BB and Barkvoll P. The effect of two toothpaste detergents on the frequency of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Acta Odontol Scand1996;54:150–3.
  4. Chahine L, et al. The effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on recurrent aphthous ulcers: a clinical study. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1997;18:1238–40.
  5. Shim Y, et al. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Oral Diseases 2012;18:655–660.
  6. Bowman K. Move your DNA. 2017. Propriometrics Press.
  7. Eldred J, Hopton A, Donnison E, Woodman J, MacPherson H. Teachers of the Alexander Technique in the UK and the people who take their lessons: A national cross-sectional survey. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 2015;23:451–461.
  8. Little P, Lewith G, Webley F, et al. Randomised controlled trial of Alexander Technique lessons, exercise and massage (ATEAM) for chronic and recurrent back pain. British Medical Journal 2008;337:a884.
  9. MacPherson H, Tilbrook H, Richmond S, Woodman J, Ballard K, et al. Alexander Technique lessons or acupuncture sessions for persons with chronic neck pain: A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2015;163:653–62.